Writing Tactics for Excellent eLearning Content

## Introduction

Writing is a crucial part of any eLearning course. In fact, it is probably the most important part of the entire eLearning production process. Writing is the foundation upon which all of the other parts of eLearning are built. It is the glue that holds the course together. Without writing, the course would be nothing more than a series of slides or videos.

In this book, you will learn how to write eLearning content in a way that is clear, concise, and effective. You will learn about the different types of writing you will need to do as you create your course, as well as how to plan, research, write the first draft, revise, and edit your course. Finally, you’ll learn about how to proofread your eLearning to make sure it is error-free and ready to be delivered to your learners. This book will show you how to do all of this in an organized, systematic way.

## Why Writing Is Important for Your eLearning Courses and eLearning Production Process

– The importance of writing in the eLearning process

Why is writing so important? The simple answer is that without writing, there would be no eLearning at all. If there were no writing, eLearning would be just a bunch of slides and videos. There would be little or no communication between the author of the course and the learner. The author would have no way of conveying information to the learners, and the learners would be unable to get the information they need from the course. This is why writing is so important in the process of creating and delivering eLearning courses. In this chapter, we will look at the different ways in which writing plays a role in the production process of a course. We will also look at how writing is different from other types of communication, and how it can be used to convey information to learners in a more effective way. This chapter will also give you an overview of the different kinds of writing that are involved in the course creation process, and it will help you understand how each of these types of written communication is used in the creation and delivery of an eLearning module. In addition, this chapter will give you tips on how to organize your writing process so that you can make the most of the time you have available to create the course you want to deliver to your target audience. This will allow you to focus your time and energy on the writing that is most important to you and your learners, rather than spending all of your time on writing that you don’t really care about or that is not as important as the writing you do want to do. In the end, this will save you a lot of time and help you create a course that is more likely to be effective for your learners and for you as the course author. Let’s take a closer look at what writing is and why it is important to the creation of an effective eLearning learning experience.


1. What is the purpose of writing?

2. Why is writing important in an e-learning course? Why is it so important that the author communicate with the learners? What are some of the ways that writing can be effective in the delivery of information to a learner? How does writing differ from other forms of communication such as audio, video, graphics, etc. ?

3. What are the different stages of the writing process? How do you know when it is time to move from one stage to the next? How can you tell when you are finished with one stage and are ready to move on to another stage? What do you do when you reach the end of a stage? How long does it take you to complete each stage of the process? What can you do to speed up the process and make it easier for you to get through each stage?

NOTE: You can find the answers to these questions and more in the “References” section of this book at the back of the book and on the book’s companion website.

Now that you have a better understanding of the role that writing plays in the overall process of developing and delivering a course, it’s time to look at each of the steps involved in this process and see how you can use writing to make each step easier and more effective for you. The first step in the development of any course is planning. This step is the most time-consuming, but it is also the most critical to the success of the final product. If you spend too much time on planning and not enough on writing, you are likely to end up with a poorly planned course that will not be as effective as it could be. You need to take the time to plan your course so that it is well thought out, organized, and easy to follow.

Writing a Killer Augmented Reality Mobile App Brief

## Introduction

In this tutorial, you will learn how to write a killer augmented reality mobile app.

First, I will walk you through how to set up your development environment. Then I will show you how to create a simple augmented reality app. After that, we will move on to more advanced topics such as:

– Creating your own custom 3D models

– Using the Google ARCore API to detect and track 3D objects in the real world

– Interacting with the 3D model in real time

## Prerequisites

You will need the following to complete this tutorial:

– Android Studio 3.1.3 or higher

– An Android device with Android 7.0 (API level 24) or higher installed

– A computer running Windows or Mac OS X

If you are using Windows, you can download and install Android Studio from the Google Play Store.

Once Android Studio is installed, open the app and click on File New. Select Import Project and navigate to the folder where you have downloaded this tutorial. Click on Next and follow the on-screen instructions to import this project into your Android Studio project.

## Setting Up Your Development Environment

The first thing you will need to do is create a new Android Virtual Device (AVD) on your computer. This AVD will be used to test your app on a real Android device. You can create an AVD by clicking on the AVD Manager icon in the toolbar of Android Studio and selecting Create Virtual Device. You will then be prompted to select the device you want to create the AVD for. Choose Android 7.1 (API 24) and click the Create button. Once your AVD is created, click on it and select Run. This will start the Android emulator and you will be able to test the app on your real device.

## Creating a Simple AR App

Now that you have set up a development environment, it is time to create your first AR app. We will start by creating a simple app that displays a 3D object on the screen and allows the user to move the object around the screen. To create this app, follow these steps:

1. Open Android Studio.

2. In the menu bar, select File New Project.

3. Select the Blank Activity template.

4. Name the project `SimpleAR`.

5. Click the OK button to open the New Project dialog.

6. On the left side of the dialog, select the Modules tab.

7. Click Add and select the following modules:

– Core: This module will contain the core functionality of your app. In this case, we are going to create an app that detects and tracks the position of an object in the user’s environment and displays it on the device’s screen. We are also going to use the Google ARCore API to do this.

8. Click OK to save the project.

9. Open the `core` module in the `build.gradle` file.

10. Add the following dependencies to the `dependencies` section of the file

11. Open `MainActivity.java` and add the following code to the onCreate() method. This method is called when the app is first launched.

12. Create a new instance of the `GoogleARCore` class.

13. Call the `initialize()` method to initialize the ARCore service.

14. Create an instance of an `ARAnchor` object. This object is used to detect the position and orientation of a real-world object.

15. Set the `anchor` property of the object to the anchor you created in the previous step.

16. Use the `getTrackingState()` and `setTrackingRegion()` methods to set the region in which the object will be tracked.

17. Use `getLastTrackingResult()` to get the last tracking result.

18. If the tracking result is `TRACKINGNOTSUPPORTED`, use the `setAutoTrackingEnabled(boolean)` method and set the `autoTracking` property to `true` to enable auto-tracking.

19. Add a `TextView` and a `Button` to the layout.

20. Connect the `onClick()` event of the button to the method `onButtonClick()`.

21. Implement the method.

22. Run the app. You should see a button and a text view. When you click on the button, the text view should change to the name of the anchor that you created.

SEO Writing Mistakes and How to Avoid Them

SEO is an ever-evolving discipline, and it’s important to keep up to date with the latest trends.

In this chapter, you’ll learn about some of the most common SEO writing mistakes, and how you can avoid them. You’ll also learn how to improve your writing, and what you can do to make your writing more effective. Finally, I’ll give you some tips on how to make the most of the writing you’ve already done, so that you can ensure that your SEO writing is as effective as it can be.

If you want to learn more about SEO writing in general, check out Search Engine Optimization For Dummies(Wiley).

## Failing to Understand Your Audience

The most important thing to remember when writing for search engines is that you’re writing for people,not search engines. You need to understand who your audience is, what they’re looking for, and why they’re searching for it in the first place. If you don’t understand your audience, you won’t be able to write for them, and you’ll end up writing a lot of stuff that doesn’t make any sense to them, or that they don’t care about at all. For example, if you’re trying to rank for the term dog grooming,you need to write about dogs, dog grooming, and dog grooming equipment. You can’t just write about dog grooming in general. You have to make sure that your content is relevant to the people who are looking for it, and that it’s written in a way that they’ll find it useful. If your content isn’t useful to your target audience, it’s not going to be useful to the search engines, either, so you’re going to end up with a bunch of pages that aren’t going to get any traffic at all, which means you’re wasting your time and money.

One of the biggest mistakes you can make as a writer is to assume that you know what your audience wants to read. You may have a pretty good idea, but that’s not the same thing as knowing for sure. Don’t be afraid to ask your audience what they want to read, and make sure you listen to what they have to say. If they tell you that they’re not interested in a particular topic, don’t force it down their throats just because you think it’s the right thing to do. You don’t want to alienate your audience. You want them to come back to your site, and to tell their friends about you, so they can come back and read more of your content in the future. So don’t write content that you think your audience will like, just because it’s what you think you should be writing. Instead, write the kind of content that your audience actuallywants.

## Writing for the Search Engines

Please note that while every care has been taken to ensure the accuracy of the information contained in this book, neither the author nor the publisher assumes any responsibility for errors or omissions, or for damages that may result from the use of information contained herein. Errors and omissions can be reported to the publisher.

## Welcome to Search Engine Land

Search engine optimization (SEO) is the process of getting your website to appear at the top of the search results page (SERP) when someone types a search query into a search engine, such as Google, Bing, or Yahoo. This chapter introduces you to the world of search engines and SEO, and shows you how to get your site to appear on the first page of the SERP. You also find out how to write web pages that are optimized for search and how to use keywords to help your site appear higher in the search engine results.

If you’re not familiar with SEO, you may be tempted to jump right in and start optimizing your site. But before you do that, be sure that you have a clear understanding of what SEO is and how it works, and know what you’re getting into before you dive in headfirst. Otherwise, you could end up doing more harm than good, and end up losing more money than you would have if you’d taken the time to learn about SEO before you started. So before you start writing, take a few minutes to read this chapter and familiarize yourself with the basics of SEO.

If you’re interested in learning about SEO in more detail, I recommend that you check out the book I co-wrote with Mark Traphagen, Search Engine Marketing All-in-One for Dummies, published by Wiley (`www.wileye.com`). This book goes into more detail about SEO than this book does, but it doesn’t assume any prior knowledge of SEO, so it’s a good place to start if you’ve never heard of SEO before. If that’s the case, you can start with Chapter 1 of this book to get a feel for the basics, and then move on to the other chapters in the book as you become more familiar with the topic.

If you already have a website and you want to learn how to improve your search engine rankings, check out my book Search Engine Ranking Factors: The Complete Guide to Optimizing Your Web Pages for Google, Yahoo!, and Bing, which is published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. It goes into much more detail than what you’ll find in this chapter, and it also assumes that you already know a little bit about SEO.

How to Write an Impressive Personal Biography?

In this chapter, you will learn…

– The difference between a résumé and a personal profile

## Introduction

Your personal biography is the first impression you make on an employer. It’s the first thing they see when they look at your application, and it can make or break your chances of getting an interview.

This chapter will teach you how to write a personal biography that will make you stand out from the crowd. You’ll learn how to organize your information in an effective way, and you’ll find out how to make the most of your skills, experience, and accomplishments. You will also learn about the difference between résumés and personal profiles, and how you can use both in your job search. Finally, you’ll discover some of the most common mistakes people make when writing their personal biographies, and what you can do to avoid making these mistakes yourself. By the end of this chapter you will have a clear idea of what you need to include in your personal biography and how to present it in a way that will get you the job you want!

## The Importance of a Personal Profile

A personal profile is different from a ré­sumé. A ré­su­mé is a summary of your work history. A personal profile, on the other hand, is an overview of who you are as a person. It includes information about your background, education, skills, and experience. It also gives you the opportunity to talk about your interests, hobbies, and personality traits. This is the part of your application that employers will spend the most time reading, so it’s important to make it as interesting and engaging as possible. You can use your personal profile as a way to sell yourself to an employer, and to explain why you’re the best candidate for the job.

1. Your personal profile can be as long or as short as you want it to be. There’s no right or wrong length, but keep in mind that the more information you include, the longer it will take you to write. If you’re applying for a job that requires a lot of writing, it’s a good idea to keep your profile to a page or two. However, if you’re looking for a position that doesn’t require much writing, you might want to include more information to make yourself stand out. The length of your profile will also depend on the type of job you’re trying to get. For example, an entry-level position might require a shorter profile than a more senior position.

2. The first thing you should do when writing your profile is to decide whether you want to write about yourself or your work experience. There are pros and cons to both approaches, so you’ll need to decide which one is best for you. If your goal is to get a job in your current field, then it makes sense to focus on your skills and accomplishments in that area. If, however, you’re hoping to move into a different field, it might be a better idea to focus more on your interests and hobbies.

If you decide to include information about both yourself and your work, make sure that you focus on the skills and experience you have that are relevant to the job for which you are applying. This will make it easier for an employer to see the connection between you and the job, and will help you to stand out in the crowd of other applicants who are trying to do the same thing. You don’t want to be the only one in the room who doesn’t have experience in the field for which the job is being advertised.

3. If you decide that you’re going to include both your work and personal experience in your profile, then the next thing to think about is how you want that information to be presented. Do you want a chronological or a functional approach? A chronological approach is one in which the information is presented in the order in which it occurred. A functional approach is the opposite. In this case, you would start with the most recent information and work your way back in time. Which approach you use will depend on how much time you have to write your profile and how much space you have in which to present your information. You may want to use a combination of both chronological and functional approaches, depending on what you think will be most effective for your situation. For more information on these two approaches, see the section “Organizing Your Personal Profile” on page.

4. Once you’ve decided which approach to use, the next step is to figure out what information you should include. The most common mistake people make in their personal profiles is to include too much information. This can be a problem if you don’t have enough space to include all of the information that you want. The best way to avoid this problem is to be honest with yourself about what you really have to say. If there’s something that you feel is important to include, then include it. If it’s not important, then don’t waste your time writing about it. The same goes for your hobbies and interests. If they’re important to you, then they should be included. If not, then you shouldn’t include them at all. Remember, you only have one chance to make a first impression, and the last thing you want is to come across as someone who is trying to impress an employer with a long list of things that he or she doesn’t care about. If this is the case, then maybe it’s time to rethink your career goals and figure out a new way to get what you want out of life.

## The Pros and Cons of Chronological and Functional Personal Profiles

Chronological and functional personal profiles are two different ways of presenting information about yourself. Chronological profiles start with your most recent experience and work backwards in time, while a functional profile starts with the least recent and works forward.

Pros of a chronological profile:

It’s easier to write because you can start at the beginning of your career and work through to the present. This makes it easier to keep track of what you’ve done in the past and what you’re planning to do in the future. It’s also a good way to show that you have a long-term career plan, which is a good thing to include in a personal profile because it shows that you are serious about your job search and are willing to invest the time and effort necessary to get the job that you really want. It can also make you seem like a more mature and responsible person, which can make you more attractive to potential employers.

An Ultimate Guide to Write a Killer B2B Blog Post

## Introduction

A blog post is a written piece of content that is published on a website. Blog posts are a great way to get your message across to your target audience. They are easy to write, easy to read and easy to share.

In this guide, you will learn how to write a killer blog post for your b2b marketing strategy. We will cover the following topics:

1. What is a blog post?

2. What are the different types of blog posts?

3. What should you include in your blog post content?

4. How should you write your blog posts for maximum impact?

5. How do you write a great blog post title?

6. How can you improve your writing skills?

7. How to write your first blog post.

8. Where can you publish your blog?

9. How many blog posts should you publish per week?

10. How much time should you spend writing each blog post and what should you focus on?

11. How often should you post on your blog and why?

12. What do you need to do to get started?

13. What tools should you use?

14. How will you measure your success?

15. What will you do if you don’t succeed?

16. How long will it take to see results?

17. What’s next?

Let’s get started!

## What is A Blog Post?

A blog post is a piece of written content that you publish on your website. A blog post can be about anything you want. It can be a product review, a how-to guide, an opinion piece, a case study or anything else you want to share with your audience.

Blog posts can be written in a variety of different formats. They can be long, short or somewhere in the middle. The length of the blog post will depend on the type of content you are writing. For example, a short blog post about a new product launch will be much shorter than a long blog post on how to build an e-commerce website.

## What are The Different Types of Blog Posts?

There are three main types of posts that you can write for your blog:

– Long Blog Posts

– Shorter Blog Posts (e.g. Case Studies, How-To Guides, Product Reviews, etc. )

– Blogs

## Long Blog Posts

Long blog posts are the most common type of blog post you will write. Long blog posts tend to be more in-depth and require more time and effort to write. They also tend to have a lot of content.

## Shorter Blog Post Types

Shorter blog post types are much easier to write than long blog posts. You can write them in less time and with less effort. However, they tend to focus on a specific topic and have less content. This is why they are also known as e-books or ebooks.

## Blogs

Blogs are a combination of both long and shorter blog post formats. Blogs tend to contain a mixture of long and short blog posts that are focused on a particular topic. They usually have a large amount of content and can be published on any topic you want, such as product reviews, case studies, opinion pieces, etc.

The 35 Best Resources for Small Businesses


LinkedIn Groups

If you want to connect with other small business owners like yourself on LinkedIn, joining a LinkedIn group provides connections and resources, but there are so many of them that it can be hard to select one. These groups are a little different from typical message boards, but they offer opportunities to find answers, get advice and network.

Each group runs and operates autonomously – some are open to anyone and others are membership only and you need to be accepted by the group manager. A few popular groups are Small Business Marketing Network and Bright Ideas & Entrepreneurs.

Bright Ideas and Entrepreneurs is a popular group with many members, including small business owners, startup founders, angel investors and more. You can get some amazing business insights and share ideas.


Sometimes you just want leading information and resources for small businesses delivered from a friend (or a small business champion). The people listed below are a few of the best to follow if you want to stay current on small business news, ideas, and trends.

1. Barbara Weltman

Barbara Weltman has been an advocate, public speaker, and resource for small business news since the release of her first book, “K. Lasser’s Tax Deductions for Small Business,” in 1995. Since then she has run her website, her “Big Ideas for Small Business newsletter,” and her blog, not to mention written over a dozen books. Weltman is on this list twice because for many business owners, it is easier to scroll through her Twitter feed for trending topics and news events than search her website. However, if you don’t take a minute to read her blog—you’re missing out.

2. Melinda Emerson

Known as the SmallBizLady, Melinda Emerson created #SmallBizChat, the longest-running small business live chat on Twitter. Small business owners tweet their questions or thoughts on current events from all over the world with #SmallBizChat. She’s also a regular columnist for The New York Times and also writes for The Wall Street Journal and MSNBC. Like Barbara Weltman, she shows up on this list twice because not only does she run a boss Twitter account, but also her website and blog are top notch.

3. Dharmesh Shah

Co-founder of Hubspot, Dharmesh Shah also founded the blog, OnStartups.com, which has over 350,000 members in its community. He has invested in over 40 startups and has co-written both “Inbound Marketing: Get Found Using Google, Social Media, and Blogs,” and “Inbound Marketing: Attract, Engage, and Delight Customers Online.” Visit the OnStartups.com blog for small business news, features resources, readings lists, and a question and answer forum.

4. Jill Konrath

Known for her fresh insight into sales strategies, Jill Konrath is also the author of “AGILE Selling and SNAP Selling.” She regularly writes thought-provoking tweets on current events and shares articles from numerous sources. Her blog is a great place to get started to learn the ins and outs of sales.

5. Gene Marks

Columnist and small business owner, Gene Marks, writes regularly on his blog and for the Washington Post, Forbes, Inc Magazine, and Entrepreneur. His Twitter feed regularly shares his articles, business tips, and news; he’s also the author of “Streetwise Small Business Book of Lists” and “The Manufacturer’s Book of Lists.”

6. Amanda Miller LittleJohn

Founder of Mopwater Social PR firm in Washington, D.C., Amanda Miller Littlejohn is nationally recognized as a PR expert. Follow her on Twitter or check out her blog for the latest developments in the PR and social media world. Plus: regular podcasts and events to learn more from the master herself.

7. Women On Business

The Women On Business news site was established in 2007, and since then (with the addition of their Twitter account) has been delivering useful information that women need to be successful in the business world. Their tweets are all about sharing thought-provoking articles and ideas, like how to say no and delegating work.

Frequently Asked Questions

How often should business owners check these blogs?

There’s no right answer as to how often business owners should read blogs. They can help your business, but you likely can’t spend significant time reading them everyday. That’s why we narrowed the list down to a few of the best blogs.

How dependable is the information in these blogs?

We do our best to select verifiable resources when publishing posts. Therefore, you can be assured that the resources are authentic and authoritative. However, we have no control over any of the blogs except for Fora Financial. We do ensure that our posts are fact-checked and edited prior to publishing.

Editorial Note: Any opinions, analyses, reviews or recommendations expressed in this article are those of the author’s alone, and have not been reviewed, approved, or otherwise endorsed by any of these entities.

Post by: Fora Financial

Fora Financial is a working capital provider to small business owners nationwide. In addition, the Fora Financial team provides educational information to the small business community through their blog, which covers topics such as business financing, marketing, technology, and much more. If you’d like to see a topic covered on the Fora Financial blog, or want to submit a guest post, please email us at [email protected] .



Learning Spanish for Beginners: The Ultimate Step By Step Guide to Start Learning Spanish

Woman on a laptop

First of all: Understand how learning Spanish really works

Before we get started, we need to set some things straight… Because years of language education at school and in traditional courses (maybe even using language apps) have probably left you with some wrong (and counterproductive) ideas about language learning. If we don’t fix that now, you’re going to waste a lot of time.

People who learn (or teach) languages this way see language as a collection of words and grammar rules. A programming language with rules that you use to construct sentences from the ground up every time you want to say something.

So how DOES learning Spanish work then?

  1. You learn some basic words to describe concepts, objects, feelings etc. So far so good.
  2. But now, you start observing native Spanish speakers. You listen to what they say in conversations, and how they say it.
  3. Because you’re observing, you discover exactly how native speakers express themselves… because you have the words and word combinations right in front of you.
  4. While listening, you might start thinking: “Ah, so THAT’s how a Spanish native speaker would say it!”
  5. The structure of their sentences will probably be a little bit different from what you’re used to in your mother tongue. So you get some grammar explanations that explain what you see in the native speaker’s sentences.
    (Read that again. They EXPLAIN what you see in actual speech. They don’t necessarily PRESCRIBE how you should construct sentences like a native speaker! 🙂 )
  6. You’ve now seen which word combinations native speakers use (they’re called chunks), so you know they’re correct. So instead of learning single words, you immediately learn these word combinations. That way, you can bypass a lot of grammar rules.
  7. You start using these word combinations yourself while speaking Spanish.
  8. You keep listening and observing more and more, so you can discover more of these word combinations.
  9. There we go: you speak with natural sentences that a native Spanish speaker would also use. From the very beginning.

I call this the OBSERVATION approach for learning languages — and it’s the fastest way of learning languages I’ve ever seen. What’s more: it’s incredibly intuitive as well 😉

Learn Spanish tips: Testimonial Brian 12-in-12 Challenge Brian

This is what learning with chunks can do for you

What This Guide Is Not About

Alphabet: Sounds of the Spanish Alphabet

Repeat the same question to several Spanish-speaking children, and you might just get different replies! Depending on the area in which you live, now everyone agrees on what official alphabet should look like. However, the leading authority is Real Academia Española (RAE), who says it should look like this:

In fact, if you read a Spanish dictionary, the “ch” and “ll” words are listed separately, and not together with “c” and “l”. All in all, that would bring the total letter count to 29 because of “ch,” “ll,” and “ñ.” Some other sources include “rr” as a separate letter, which would make it 30. Yet other sources do not count the “k” or “w”, because they only exist in borrowed words like whiski and koala.

Spanish Alphabet Fun Facts!

How to learn Spanish: Our 10 key steps

1. Consider a big lifestyle change

For the sake of honesty, it’s worth acknowledging that a dramatic lifestyle change is the quickest way to fluency. Try to put yourself in a situation that makes it impossible for you not to learn Spanish. For example:

Free webinar: Speak about yourself in Spanish

How to introduce yourself in Spanish

How to introduce yourself in Spanish

2. Read as much as possible

Reading in a foreign language might seem challenging, but if you find stories or articles at your level, it can be a huge help. In his top tips to learn a language fast , polyglot Ollie Richards suggests starting with short, simple dialogues that you would find in any textbook.

When you’re reading, you can highlight words and phrases that you don’t understand, note them and look them up. This will help them stick in your mind and broaden your Spanish vocabulary . Reading will also give you an understanding of grammar and how to structure sentences.

3. Take speaking-based Spanish lessons with a tutor

With so many apps and games available to learn Spanish online, it’s tempting to believe that language lessons are no longer necessary. However, if you want to learn a language fast, there’s no substitute for having a professional teach it to you. Online tutoring is a flexible and cost-effective way to do this.

Most importantly for your progress, 1-on-1 tutoring means you’ll have the chance to practice speaking Spanish from lesson #1. Some learners take Spanish lessons for years but can still barely string a sentence together. Others manage to have a basic conversation after only a week or two. The difference? The second group started speaking before they felt “ready!” Speaking is a very different skill from writing, reading or listening, and there’s still no method of practicing that’s as effective as working with a live partner.

If your priority truly is to speak, then speak already! Do other things too, as these are all part of the language learning experience and necessary to live a full life through the language, but speak! Speak NOW. Meet a native in person or online and show them what you’re made of, make mistakes and get through it – this is the best way to speak better quickly.”

Luckily, finding a great tutor to practice your speaking with has never been more convenient or affordable. With online tutoring sites like Preply, a private online Spanish tutor can cost as little as $5 per hour. If you’re serious about learning Spanish, making a human connection with a tutor and investing that little bit of money in lessons will keep you accountable to your goals like nothing else.

We have online tutors in more than 50 languages.

4. Memorize the first 2,000 words

According to the Spanish Dictionary from the Real Academia Española, there are 93,000 words in Spanish. But even when you get to native-level fluency, the most common ones will still be doing most of the heavy lifting in your daily conversations.

It’s common sense that some words appear a lot more frequently than others, and some research suggests that learning the most common 2,000 words will allow language learners to understand 80% of what they need.

    : An online game that helps you learn vocabulary in context. You choose to play with the first 500, 2,000 or 1,0000 most common words. Instead of memorizing them by heart, you select which word fills in a blank in a particular sentence from a list of options. It’s excellent reading comprehension practice.
  • Memrise : a particularly playful flashcard app. There are packs of the most common Spanish words , and plenty of games to help you study them. Check out our detailed review of Memrise if you want to know more. a no-frills flashcard app that has something of a cult following among language learners . It uses spaced repetition techniques to help new words “stick” in your long-term memory.
  • Duolingo : Duolingo is a great free app that allows you to build vocabulary from a basic level. It is limited because you can’t practice or hear real conversations, but it is handy for establishing your first 2,000 Spanish words .

5. Learn the basics of grammar

Many successful adult language learners didn’t enjoy grammar in language lessons in high school. For a lot of us, those memories have just blurred into one prolonged conjugation exercise.

Frequently asked questions

How long does it take to learn Spanish?

It takes the average English speaker about 575-600 hours, or 24 weeks of full-time study, to get fluent in Spanish. So, if you’re only studying one hour per day, that works out to about a year and a half. ‘Fluency’ is difficult to define because everybody progresses at different rates, and there are many contributing factors. However, achieving a conversational level of Spanish is possible for English speakers within 3 months.

How can I learn Spanish fast?

If you’re interested in learning Spanish quickly, you have to be committed. Consume as much of the Spanish language as possible in the first 3 months. Read it, listen to it, and of course, speak it. You can also follow these 10 tips to learn a language fast from polyglot Olly Richards.

How can I learn Spanish for free?

There are lots of great free language learning tools available online. These include apps for both iOS and Android , podcasts , Youtube videos, and blogs on topics like how to introduce yourself in Spanish . These can be a great way to get started without spending a penny. Search for the areas you’re most interested in or the questions you have, and try to find free content on your favorite platforms.

Is Spanish hard to learn?

This is a tough question to answer, but it is a relatively easy foreign language for English speakers to learn . Both Spanish and English use the Roman/Latin alphabet, just like many other European languages, including Portuguese , French and Italian , so in terms of letters used, they are almost identical. Plurals also work in the same way, and there is a lot of shared vocabulary. However, learning Spanish does have challenges. For example, the speed with which native Spanish speakers talk to each other and pronunciation can be difficult for beginners. But, if you’re considering learning Spanish as an English speaker , you shouldn’t be put off by the difficulty.

What is the best way to learn Spanish?

There is no single best way to learn any language. It takes a combination of different study techniques, and each person is different. Despite this, consuming as much Spanish as possible is the best way to start. It doesn’t matter if it is reading, listening, or practicing speaking in 1-on-1 lessons with a tutor ; you need to do as much as possible. The more you do, the faster you will progress. One of the crucial things Spanish learners can do at the start is to learn the regular verb conjugations as these give the basis of forming sentences in the Spanish language .



Step 5: Manage the BCP Process

Developing Recovery Strategy for Your Business Continuity Plan

Business Continuity Planning

You can help by splitting this big page into smaller ones. Please make sure to follow the naming policy. Dividing books into smaller sections can provide more focus and allow each one to do one thing well, which benefits everyone.

A Business Continuity Planning (BCP) methodology is used to produce a plan to enable an organization to continue in operation in the face of some kind of interruption to its normal operation. The methodology needs to be scalable for an organization of any size and complexity. Even though the methodology has roots in regulated industries, any type of organization may create a BCP manual, and arguably every organization should have one in order to ensure the organization’s longevity. Evidence that firms do not invest enough time and resources into BCP preparations are evident in disaster survival statistics. Fires permanently close 44% of the business affected. In the 1993 World Trade Center bombing, 150 businesses out of 350 affected failed to survive the event. Conversely, the firms affected by the Sept 11 attacks with well-developed and tested BCP manuals were back in business within days.

A BCP manual for a small organization may be simply a printed manual stored safely away from the primary work location, containing the names, addresses, and phone numbers for crisis management staff, general staff members, clients, and vendors along with the location of the off-site data backup storage media, copies of insurance contracts, and other critical materials necessary for organizational survival. At its most complex, a BCP manual may outline a secondary work site, technical requirements and readiness, regulatory reporting requirements, work recovery measures, the means to re-establish physical records, the means to establish a new supply chain, or the means to establish new production centers. Firms should ensure that their BCP manual is realistic and easy to use during a crisis. As such, BCP sits along side crisis management and disaster recovery planning and is a part of an organization’s overall risk management.


The analysis phase in the development of a BCP manual consists of an impact analysis, threat analysis, and impact scenarios with the resulting BCP plan requirement documentation.

Impact analysis [ edit | edit source ]

An impact analysis results in the differentiation between critical and non-critical organization functions. A function may be considered critical if the implications for stakeholders of damage to the organization resulting are regarded as unacceptable. Perceptions of the acceptability of disruption may be modified by the cost of establishing and maintaining appropriate business or technical recovery solutions. A function may also be considered critical if dictated by law. Next, the impact analysis results in the recovery requirements for each critical function. Recovery requirements consist of the following information:

Threat analysis [ edit | edit source ]

After defining recovery requirements, documenting potential threats is recommended to detail a specific disaster’s unique recovery steps. Some common threats include the following:

All threats in the examples above share a common impact – the potential of damage to organizational infrastructure – except one, disease. The impact of diseases is initially purely human, and may be alleviated with technical and business solutions. During the 2002-2003 SARS outbreak, some organizations grouped staff into separate teams, and rotated the teams between the primary and secondary work sites, with a rotation frequency equal to the incubation period of the disease.

The organizations also banned face-to-face contact between opposing team members during business and non-business hours. With such a split, organizations increased their resiliency against the threat of government-ordered quarantine measures if one person in a team contracted or was exposed to the disease.

Damage from flooding also has a unique characteristic. If an office environment is flooded with non-saline and contamination-free water (e.g., in the event of a pipe burst), equipment can be thoroughly dried and may still be functional.

Definition of impact scenarios [ edit | edit source ]

After defining potential threats, documenting the impact scenarios that form the basis of the business recovery plan is recommended. In general, planning for the most wide-reaching disaster or disturbance is preferable to planning for a smaller scale problem, as almost all smaller scale problems are partial elements of larger disasters. A typical impact scenario like ‘Building Loss’ will most likely encompass all critical business functions, and the worst potential outcome from any potential threat. A business continuity plan may also document additional impact scenarios if an organization has more than one building. Other more specific impact scenarios – for example a scenario for the temporary or permanent loss of a specific floor in a building – may also be documented.

Recovery requirement documentation [ edit | edit source ]

After the completion of the analysis phase, the business and technical plan requirements are documented in order to commence the implementation phase. For an office-based, information technology intensive business, the plan requirements may cover the following elements which may be classed as ICE (In Case of Emergency) data:

Other business environments, such as production, distribution, warehousing, etc., will need to cover these elements, but are likely to have additional issues to manage following a disruptive event.



How to handle stress at work


America’s Workers: Stressed Out, Overwhelmed, Totally Exhausted

Perhaps the most poignant detail from Anne-Marie Slaughter’s Atlantic cover story, “Why Women Still Can’t Have It All,” was also one of the smallest: an overworked mother of three who “organized her time so ruthlessly that she always keyed in 1:11 or 2:22 or 3:33 on the microwave rather than 1:00, 2:00, or 3:00, because hitting the same number three times took less time.”

That may be extreme, but it illustrated a familiar feeling, one the writer Brigid Schulte calls “the overwhelm.” In her new book, Overwhelmed: Work, Love, and Play When No One Has the Time, Schulte scrutinizes this state of affairs: Why do we all feel so overworked? How is that feeling different for men than for women? Is a better, less harried life possible? I spoke with Schulte about her research, and a lightly edited transcript of the conversation follows.

Can you start by telling us about what “the overwhelm” is, how you see it now after years of research and writing on the topic, and how you think that your understanding differs from the conventional one?

This whole book started when a time-use researcher told me I had 30 hours of leisure a week. And when I told him he was out of his flipping mind, he challenged me to keep a time diary and he would show me where my leisure was.

The whole premise of his challenge was that there was something wrong with me. That I should have this time, and if I didn’t feel that I did, it was my fault. I already felt totally inadequate—felt that I never did enough work, or that it was good enough, that I wasn’t spending enough time with my kids, or that I was so exhausted I was yelling at them, and I stomped around seething that my “egalitarian” marriage left me up late folding laundry or wrapping Christmas presents or doing the dishes while my husband slept soundly.

Before I began working on this book, I thought that’s just how life had to be—fast, crazy, busy, breathless—particularly for working mothers in the 21st century. I didn’t think it could change. I had no role models. And didn’t really stop and think about why. Most everyone I knew was busy, with schedules going every which way. I remember talking to another working mother on my cell phone in the car weeping after going back to work after my maternity leave about how burned out I felt and how I missed the companionship and understanding of the mother’s group I’d joined after maternity leave. “This is it,” she’d said. “This phone call is the only kind of mother’s group you’re going to get now.”

There was also no real national discussion on what I was experiencing. If women were feeling overwhelmed, I had the feeling that the culture just thought, “Tough. You made this choice to work, now deal with it.” That view was always reinforced after I would write a piece for the Washington Post about juggling work and life. I would always get comments about how working mothers were just selfish. I would get into big back and forths with readers who thought working mothers just wanted big houses and were abandoning their kids. They didn’t deserve free time. Anything approaching discussion about feeling overwhelmed was dismissed as a “Mommy issues,” and [the upshot seemed to be] that middle-class women just needed to to get to the spa for an afternoon or take an anti-anxiety med and chill out.

But I discovered soon enough that these are hardly “Mommy” issues—these are human issues, how we work and live, the pressures to spend so much time at work, or living up to crazy ideals, is affecting all of us. And you’re beginning to see the conversation change—even conservatives now are looking at birth-rate declines and work like Stewart D. Friedman’s Baby Bust showing that more young people don’t see a way to combine work and family in a rational way, so are choosing not to have families. That’s huge. That’s when work-life issues become the problem of society, especially one that purports to value families and that wants to survive into the future.

What I discovered in researching the book has been infuriating, enlightening and ultimately liberating. It is so clear now how on the bleeding edge we are of changing gender roles, how so much has changed in our lives and yet how so much remains stuck in amber, in the nostalgia of another era. I’m not just talking about workplace laws which were written in 1938 when the world was a different place and tax policies that favor breadwinner-homemaker family models, but our cultural attitudes, our unconscious biases.

I had one of those “aha” moments when I found the General Social Survey question about whether mothers of preschoolers should work. As late as 2002, the last time the question was asked (at least at the time of my reporting) majorities of both men and women said no, she shouldn’t, or she should only work part-time. What that showed me was such a deep and pervasive ambivalence about working mothers— no wonder we don’t have national policies and workplace cultures to help women better juggle work and home, if we’re deeply conflicted about whether she should be at work at all.

How can work stress affect well-being?

Long-term exposure to work-related stressors like these can affect mental health. Research links burnout with symptoms of anxiety and depression. In some cases, this sets the stage for serious mental health problems. Indeed, one study shows younger people who routinely face heavy workloads and extreme time pressure on the job are more likely to experience major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder.

High levels of stress at work –– and outside of it –– can affect physical health, too. Repeated activation of the fight-or-flight response can disrupt bodily systems and increase susceptibility to disease. For example, repeated release of the stress hormone cortisol can disturb the immune system, and raise the likelihood of developing autoimmune disorders, cardiovascular disease, and Alzheimer’s disease. Chronic stress can also affect health by interfering with healthy behaviors, such as exercise, balanced eating, and sleep.

Work stress can also harm companies or organizations. Burnout reduces job productivity and boosts absenteeism and job turnover, and also leads to conflict between coworkers, causing stress to spread within a workplace.

How can you cope with work stress?

  • Relaxation strategies. Relaxation helps counter the physiological effects of the fight-or-flight response. For example, progressive muscle relaxation helps reduce muscle tension associated with anxiety. To practice this skill, sit comfortably with your eyes closed. Working from your legs upward, systematically tense and relax each major muscle groups. Hold the tension for 10 seconds; release tension for 20 seconds. Each time you release muscle tension, think “relax” to yourself. This skill and many other relaxation strategies can help reduce symptoms of anxiety.
  • Problem-solving. Problem-solving is an active coping strategy that involves teaching people to take specific steps when approaching a roadblock or challenge. These steps include defining the problem, brainstorming potential solutions, ranking the solutions, developing an action plan, and testing the chosen solution.
  • Mindfulness. Mindfulness is the ability to pay attention to the present moment with curiosity, openness, and acceptance. Stress can be exacerbated when we spend time ruminating about the past, worrying about the future, or engaging in self-criticism. Mindfulness helps to train the brain to break these harmful habits. You can cultivate mindfulness skills through formal practice (like guided meditation) and informal exercises (like mindful walking), or try mindfulness apps or classes. Mindfulness-based therapies are effective for reducing symptoms of depression and anxiety.
  • Reappraising negative thoughts. Chronic stress and worry can lead people to develop a mental filter in which they automatically interpret situations through a negative lens. A person might jump to negative conclusions with little or no evidence (“my boss thinks I’m incompetent”) and doubt their ability to cope with stressors (“I’ll be devastated if I don’t get the promotion”). To reappraise negative thoughts, treat them as hypotheses instead of facts and consider other possibilities. Regularly practicing this skill can help people reduce negative emotions in response to stressors.

About the Authors

Nicole J. LeBlanc is a doctoral candidate in clinical psychology at Harvard University, where she conducts research on the association between social factors and the development and maintenance of emotional disorders. She is also a clinical … See Full Bio

Dr. Luana Marques is the director and founder of Community Psychiatry PRIDE at Massachusetts General Hospital and an Associate Professor in Psychology at Harvard Medical School. She completed her PhD in Clinical Psychology at The State … See Full Bio



How to Design a Winning Business Model

To find and retaining a market position, a business strategy must either do things different from rivals or the same things in different ways.

Formulate the Winning Strategy
Choose and Capitalize on Business Strategy

T extbooks sometimes explain business strategy simply as a firm’s high-level plan for reaching specific business objectives. Strategic plans succeed when they lead to business growth, a strong competitive position, and strong financial performance. When the high-level strategy fails, however, the firm must either change its approach or prepare to go out of business.

Define Your Terms!

Define Business Strategy

Business strategy is the firm’s working plan for achieving its vision, prioritizing objectives, competing successfully, and optimizing financial performance with its business model.

The choice of objectives is the heart of the strategy, but a complete approach also describes concretely how the firm plans to meet these objectives. As a result, the strategy explains in practical terms how the firm differentiates itself from competitors, how it earns revenues, and where it earns margins.

Business strategy explains how the firm differentiates, generates revenues, earns margins.

Strategy in business—like strategy in chess—must have tangible objectives, a realistic plan for reaching them, and accurate knowledge of strengths and vulnerabilities. [Photo: Battle of the Somme, soldiers on break playing chess. Querrieu, France, October 1916]

Business strategy explains how the firm differentiates, generates revenues, earns margins.

Strategy in business—like strategy in chess—must have tangible objectives, a realistic plan for reaching them, and accurate knowledge of strengths and vulnerabilities. [Photo: Battle of the Somme, soldiers on break playing chess. Querrieu, France, October 1916]

Strategies Reflect the Firm’s Strengths, Vulnerabilities, Resources, and Opportunities. They also Reflect the Firm’s Competitors and Its Market.

Many different strategies and business models are possible, even for companies in the same industry selling similar products or services. Southwest Airlines (in the US) and Ryan Air (in Europe), for instance, have strategies based on providing low-cost transportation. The approach for Singapore Airlines focuses instead on brand image for luxury and quality service. In competitive industries, each firm formulates a strategy it believes it can exploit.

Formulating Strategy Is All About Meeting Objectives (Goals)

In business, the strategy begins with a focus on the highest level objective in private industry: Increasing owner value. For most companies that is the firm’s reason for being. In practical terms, however, firms achieve this objective only by earning profits. For most firms, therefore, the highest goal can be stated by referring to “profits.” The generic business strategy, therefore, aims first to earn, sustain, and grow profits.

An Abundance of Strategies

Strategy discussions are sometimes confusing because most firms have many strategies, not just a single “business strategy.” Analysts sometimes say marketing strategy when they mean the firm’s competitive strategy. And, a firm’s financial strategy is something different from its pricing strategy, or operational strategy. The firm’s many strategic plans interact, but they have different objectives and different action plans.

The Strategic Framework

The strategic framework is a hierarchy. At the top sits the firm’s overall (or generic) business strategy. Here, the aim is the highest-level business objective: earn, sustain, and grow profits. Some may immediately ask: Exactly how does the firm achieve it’s profit objectives?

Firms in competitive industries answer the “how” question by explaining how the firm competes. For these firms, therefore, the overall business strategy is rightly called a competitive strategy. A “competitive strategy” explains in general terms how the firm differentiates itself from the competition, defines its market, and creates customer demand.

However, detailed and concrete answers to the “how” question lie in lower level strategies, such as the marketing strategy, operational strategy, or financial strategy, The marketing strategy, for instance, might aim to “Achieve leading market share.” Or, “Establish leading brand awareness.” Financial strategy objectives might include: “Maintain sufficient working capital” or “Create a high-leverage capital structure.”

What Is a Business Model, Really?

Everyone agrees that executives must know how business models work if their organizations are to thrive, yet there continues to be little agreement on an operating definition. Management writer Joan Magretta defined a business model as “the story that explains how an enterprise works,” harking back to Peter Drucker, who described it as the answer to the questions: Who is your customer, what does the customer value, and how do you deliver value at an appropriate cost?

Other experts define a business model by specifying the main characteristics of a good one. For example, Harvard Business School’s Clay Christensen suggests that a business model should consist of four elements: a customer value proposition, a profit formula, key resources, and key processes. Such descriptions undoubtedly help executives evaluate business models, but they impose preconceptions about what they should look like and may constrain the development of radically different ones.

Our studies suggest that one component of a business model must be the choices that executives make about how the organization should operate—choices such as compensation practices, procurement contracts, location of facilities, extent of vertical integration, sales and marketing initiatives, and so on. Managerial choices, of course, have consequences. For instance, pricing (a choice) affects sales volume, which, in turn, shapes the company’s scale economies and bargaining power (both consequences). These consequences influence the company’s logic of value creation and value capture, so they too must have a place in the definition. In its simplest conceptualization, therefore, a business model consists of a set of managerial choices and the consequences of those choices.

Companies make three types of choices when creating business models. Policy choices determine the actions an organization takes across all its operations (such as using nonunion workers, locating plants in rural areas, or encouraging employees to fly coach class). Asset choices pertain to the tangible resources a company deploys (manufacturing facilities or satellite communication systems, for instance). And governance choices refer to how a company arranges decision-making rights over the other two (should we own or lease machinery?). Seemingly innocuous differences in the governance of policies and assets influence their effectiveness a great deal.

Consequences can be either flexible or rigid. A flexible consequence is one that responds quickly when the underlying choice changes. For example, choosing to increase prices will immediately result in lower volumes. By contrast, a company’s culture of frugality—built over time through policies that oblige employees to fly economy class, share hotel rooms, and work out of Spartan offices—is unlikely to disappear immediately even when those choices change, making it a rigid consequence. These distinctions are important because they affect competitiveness. Unlike flexible consequences, rigid ones are difficult to imitate because companies need time to build them.

Take, for instance, Ryanair, which switched in the early 1990s from a traditional business model to a low-cost one. The Irish airline eliminated all frills, cut costs, and slashed prices to unheard-of levels. The choices the company made included offering low fares, flying out of only secondary airports, catering to only one class of passenger, charging for all additional services, serving no meals, making only short-haul flights, and utilizing a standardized fleet of Boeing 737s. It also chose to use a nonunionized workforce, offer high-powered incentives to employees, operate out of a lean headquarters, and so on. The consequences of those choices were high volumes, low variable and fixed costs, a reputation for reasonable fares, and an aggressive management team, to name a few. (See “Ryanair’s Business Model Then and Now.”) The result is a business model that enables Ryanair to offer a decent level of service at a low cost without radically lowering customers’ willingness to pay for its tickets.

Ryanair’s Business Model Then and Now

This depiction of Ryanair’s business model in the 1980s highlights the airline’s major choices at the time: offering excellent service and operating with a standardized fleet. The airline was forced to redesign its business model in the face of stiff competition.

Ryanair’s current business model rests on the key choices of offering customers low fares and providing nothing free. The rigid consequences include a reputation for fair fares and low fixed costs. Ryanair’s choices are aligned with its goals, generate cycles that reinforce the business model, and are robust given that it has been operating as a low-cost airline for 20 years.

Is it aligned with company goals?

The choices made while designing a business model should deliver consequences that enable an organization to achieve its goals. This may seem obvious until you consider a counterexample. In the 1970s, Xerox set up Xerox PARC, which spawned technological innovations such as laser printing, Ethernet, the graphical user interface, and very large scale integration for semiconductors. However, Xerox PARC was notoriously unable to spawn new businesses or capture value from its innovations for the parent due to a distressing lack of alignment with Xerox’s goals.

The choices that executives make while creating a business model should complement one another; there must be internal consistency. If, ceteris paribus, a low-cost airline were to decide to provide a level of comfort comparable to that offered by a full-fare carrier such as British Airways, the change would require reducing the number of seats on each plane and offering food and coffee. These choices would undermine the airline’s low-cost structure and wreck its profits. When there’s a lack of reinforcement, it’s possible to refine the business model by abandoning some choices and making new ones.

Business Strategy Examples

I’d like to wrap up this article with a collection of short examples extracted from the book, showing each of the strategies we have discussed above in action and applied to a real-life business:

Differentiation Strategy

The goal of a differentiation strategy is not to “compete” with rivals and take them out of business but quite the opposite: its goal is to avoid frontal competition by being unique, and a perception map as we saw earlier can help us do that.

For example, Dr Pepper Snapple Group (NYSE: DPS) owns more than 50 brands of flavored beverages including 7Up, Canada Dry, Snapple, Mott’s, Hawaiian Punch, Orange Crush and Sunkist, all of which occupy leadership positions in the very crowded and competitive refreshment drink shelves.

Different brands belonging to DR Pepper Snapple group. This is at the core of their differentiation strategy.

These products, however, are unique in what they offer and are positioned in their buyers’ minds as top brands in their respective categories, and DPS didn’t need to destroy Coke or Pepsi to achieve its position.

Strategic product re-positioning

If you find yourself in a dogfight over commoditized offers, you can still find a way out by focusing on narrower segments of customers or flipping to a low-price leadership strategy within that segment.

For decades since its introduction in the late 1800s Ivory, a soap bar manufactured by Procter & Gamble (P&G), enjoyed a privileged differentiation leadership position, being the brand that defined and resembled what “cleanness” meant in the soap category.

But when new deodorant soaps and “beauty bars” like Dial and Dove, which featured deodorant and skin care ingredients, became serious competitors in the mid 60s, P&G decided to reposition its iconic brand to become the low-price leader in the soap market, rather than engaging in head-to-head competition with the new entrants.

Ivory re-positioning strategy

The idea of repositioning is to zig when they zag. If low-price competition is tough, then slowly move onto a differentiated position or vice versa. If neither position works, narrow your target segment and move to a niche approach and restart the whole strategy process again.

Low-price leadership and strategy

In the case of Ivory, for example, the air bubbles that helped the soap float also helped reduce costs because the soap needed less materials, which in addition to basic wrapping, lack of deodorant and scent ingredients and low promotion, helped the product achieve costs advantages that other soap bars could not even dream of.

Market penetration strategy

Miller ad to increase appeal to male markets. A big shift in their market strategy.

Don’t forget that customer segments are just categorizations that YOU choose and there are many ways to go about it. So when a market is not growing, slicing it in a different way may help find new segments that could find the product valuable.

Market development strategy

When trying to target new markets, what you must look for is groups of people that could use the benefits of your solutions, but that for any number of reasons haven’t been targeted by your current market segmentation strategy.

Through Nespresso, Nestlé found a way to capture an entirely new market for its coffee: customers who preferred to make a great cup of fresh java at home, rather than having to get in their car or wait in line to buy one.

In this perfectly crafted business strategy, Nestlé created a great “vehicle” to deliver its coffee products making them a perfect match for each other, reminding us a bit of the success of Gillette’s famous razor and blade business model, where the company would make money from the blades, not the razor.

Strategic product improvements

This is the most common type of innovation and the one most people are familiar with. Things like “whiteness” in toothpaste, download speed in internet services, or storage capacity in computers are all good examples of linear product improvements, where every new product just offers more of it.

Basic structure of a corporate venture capital deal

Best Business Strategy Books

The content of this article has been extracted from Strategy for Executives™, a book that provides a fundamental, but practical, framework to understand and create a solid business’s strategy from scratch, applicable to the dynamic conditions that modern executives face in pretty much every market today.

There are many great business strategy books to choose from, including our all-time favorites The Innovator Solution by Clayton Christensen and Understanding Michael Porter by Joan Magretta, but why go through all these different frameworks and ideas, some of them outdated, when you can get a unified map to business strategy that incorporates all of them in a single framework?

Strategy for Executives, which is now free to download here, is based on extensive multi-year research, where we broke down the most popular strategy frameworks of the last 40 years, extracted their core ideas, and tied them all together into a single didactical and self-contained body of knowledge.

The research was led by Sun Wu, a seasoned Fortune 500 executive with more than 15 years of real-life experience, complemented by a thorough revision of more than 300 books and research papers, and over 500 hours of videos, interviews and formal training.

The result is a combination of fundamental concepts and a concise map to the strategy choices that modern executives have to make to thrive in today’s highly competitive markets.

Download Strategy for Executives book